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文章作者:体育新闻 上传时间:2019-12-11

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Gender, education and work: The weaker sex

Boys are being outclassed by girls at both school and university, and the gap is widening


“IT’S all to do with their brains and bodies and chemicals,” says Sir Anthony Seldon, the master of Wellington College, a**posh**English**boarding school**. “There’s a**mentality**that it’s not cool for them to perform, that it’s not cool to be smart,” suggests Ivan Yip, principal of the Bronx Leadership Academy in New York. One school charges £25,000 ($38,000) a year and has a**scuba-diving**club; the other serves subsidised lunches to most of its pupils, a quarter of whom have**special needs**. Yet both**are grappling with**the same problem: teenage boys are being left behind by girls.

风姿罗曼蒂克所高级拉脱维亚语寄宿高校的校长AnthonySeldon称“那统统在于他们的大脑、身体和荷尔蒙”。纽约Bronx Leadership Academy厅长IvanYip称“他们广泛感觉努力是不酷的,聪明是不酷的”。前面二个收取费用3.8万日元一年并存在潜水俱乐部;而另多少个为其超过八分之四学员提供午饭补贴,53%的学习者有破例传授供给。可是,它们都生龙活虎律致力于化解雷同难点:青年男孩远远滞后于女孩。

It is a problem that would have been unimaginable a few decades ago. Until the 1960s boys spent longer and went further in school than girls, and were more likely to graduate from university. Now, across the rich world and in a growing number of poor countries, the balance has**tilted**the other way. Policymakers who once fretted about girls’ lack of confidence in science now spend their time dangling copies of “Harry Potter” before surly boys. Sweden has commissioned research into its “boy crisis”. Australia has devised a reading programme called “Boys, Blokes, Books & Bytes”. In just a couple of generations, one gender gap has closed, only for another to open up.


The**reversal**is laid out in a report published on March 5th by the OECD, a Paris-based rich-country think-tank. Boys’ dominance just about endures in maths: at age 15 they are, on average, the equivalent of three months’ schooling ahead of girls. In science the results are fairly even. But in reading, where girls have been ahead for some time, a gulf has appeared. In all 64 countries and economies in the study, girls outperform boys. The average gap is equivalent to an**extra**year of schooling.


The OECD**deems**literacy**to be the most**important skill that it assesses, since further learning depends on it. Sure enough, teenage boys are 50% more likely than girls to fail to achieve basic proficiency in any of maths, reading and science (see chart 1). Youngsters in this group, with nothing to**build on**or**shine at**, are prone to drop out of school altogether.


To see why boys and girls fare so differently in the classroom, first**look at**what they do outside it. The average 15-year-old girl devotes five-and-a-half hours a week to homework, an hour more than the average boy, who spends more time playing video games and**trawling the internet**. Three-quarters of girls read for pleasure, compared with little more than half of boys. Reading rates are falling everywhere as screens draw eyes from pages, but boys are giving up faster. The OECD found that, among boys who do as much homework as the average girl, the gender gap in reading fell by nearly a quarter.


Once in the classroom, boys**long to**be out of it. They are twice as likely as girls to report that school is a “waste of time”, and more often turn up late. Just as teachers used to struggle to persuade girls that science is not only for men, the OECD now urges parents and policymakers to steer boys away from a version of**masculinity**that ignores academic achievement. “There are different pressures on boys,” says Mr Yip. “Unfortunately there’s a tendency where they try to**live up to**certain expectations in terms of [bad] behavior.”


Boys’**disdain**for school might have been less irrational when there were plenty of jobs for uneducated men. But those days**have long gone**. It may be that a bit of swagger helps in maths, where confidence plays a part in boys’ lead (though it sometimes extends to**delusion**: 12% of boys told the OECD that they were familiar with the mathematical concept of “subjunctive scaling”, a red herring that fooled only 7% of girls). But their lack of self-discipline drives teachers crazy.


Perhaps because they can be so insufferable, teenage boys are often marked down. The OECD found that boys did much better in its anonymized tests than in teacher assessments. The gap with girls in reading was a third smaller, and the gap in maths—where boys were already ahead—opened up further. In another finding that suggests a lack of even-handedness among teachers, boys are more likely than girls to be forced to repeat a year, even when they are of equal ability.


What is behind this discrimination? One possibility is that teachers mark up students who are**polite, eager and stay out of fights**, all**attributes**that are more common among girls. In some countries, academic points can even be**dock**ed for bad behaviour. Another is that women, who make up eight out of ten primary-school teachers and nearly seven in ten lower-secondary teachers, favour their own sex, just as male bosses have been shown to favour male underlings. In a few places sexism is**enshrined**in law: Singapore still**canes**boys, while**sparing**girls the rod.是什么

产生这种反差对待?风度翩翩种恐怕的批注是老师授予这个礼貌、热心和远远地离开打斗的上学的孩童更加高分数,而那几个特点在女孩中特别广大。在一些国度,甚至会因不良行为而扣掉学业分数。另生龙活虎种可能是,女子,构成了十分之九的小教的和左近百分之八十的初中等教育师,更偏疼她们自个儿的性别,就好像男人上级偏疼男人下属常常。在大器晚成都部队分地点在French Open中也可以有性别主义:新加坡共和国依然允许鞭刑男子,而女人则免于该行政诉讼法。

Some countries provide an environment in which boys can do better. In Latin America the gender gap in reading is relatively small, with boys in**Chile**,**Colombia**,**Mexico**and**Peru**trailing girls less than they do elsewhere. Awkwardly, however, this nearly always**comes with**a wider gender gap in maths,**in favour of**boys. The reverse is true, too: Iceland, Norway and Sweden, which have got girls up to parity with boys in maths, struggle with uncomfortably wide gender gaps in reading. Since 2003, the last occasion when the OECD did a big study, boys in a few countries have caught up in reading and girls in several others have significantly narrowed the gap in maths. No country has managed both.

在有些国家为男孩表现美好提供了条件。在拉美,阅读方面包车型地铁性别差别相对很小。如智利、哥伦比亚共和国、墨西哥和秘鲁(Peru卡塔尔(英语:State of Qatar)的男士落后于女子小于其他地点。然则,令人纠葛的是,这总伴随着男子在数学方面超越于女子的反差加大。反过来也建构。女孩与男孩在数学方面展现出色的冰岛、挪威王国和瑞士联邦,挣扎于令人眼红的日渐加宽的翻阅方面性别差别。自二零零一年OECD最终三次就此开展的广阔侦察显示,少数国家男士在翻阅方面境遇了女人,而在另大器晚成部分国家女人成功降低了数学方面包车型客车间距。但从未国家成功完毕双方。

Girls’ educational dominance**persists**after school. Until a few decades ago men were in a clear majority at university almost everywhere (see chart 2), particularly in advanced courses and in science and engineering. But as higher education has boomed worldwide, women’s enrolment has increased almost twice as fast as men’s. In the OECD women now make up 56% of students enrolled, up from 46% in 1985. By 2025 that may rise to 58%.


Even in the handful of OECD countries where women are in the minority on campus, their numbers**are creeping up**. Meanwhile several, including America, Britain and parts of Scandinavia, have 50% more women than men on campus. Numbers in many of America’s elite private colleges are more evenly balanced. It is widely believed that their opaque admissions criteria are relaxed for men.

哪怕在个别女子是个旁人全的OECD国家,女人数量也再稳步攀升。与此同期,一些回顾U.S.、United Kingdom和澳国国家,女人比男人人口多于二分一。在广大U.S.A.才子公立高校中,性别比例更是平衡。许三个人认为那一个学院的不透明招生专门的学业越来越偏好男子。

The feminisation of higher education was so gradual that for a long time it passed unremarked. According to Stephan Vincent-Lancrin of the OECD, when in 2008 it published a report pointing out just how far it had gone, people “couldn’t believe it”.

高教的女性化进度如此缓慢,以致于在十分长日子内未被人察觉。据OECD的Stephan Vincent-Lancrin称,当二零零六年大器晚成份有关报告摘马上,大家“不信那结果”。

Women who go to university are more likely than their male peers to graduate, and typically get better grades. But men and women tend to study different subjects, with many women choosing courses in education, health, arts and the humanities, whereas men take up computing, engineering and the**exact sciences**. In mathematics women are**drawing level**; in the life sciences, social sciences, business and law they have moved ahead.


Social change has done more to encourage women to enter higher education than any deliberate policy.**The Pill**and a decline in the average number of children, together with later marriage and childbearing, have made it easier for married women to join the workforce. As more women went out to work, discrimination became less**sharp**. Girls saw the point of study once they were expected to have careers. Rising divorce rates underlined the importance of being able to provide for yourself. These days girls nearly everywhere seem more ambitious than boys, both academically and in their careers. It is hard to believe that in 1900-50 about half of jobs in America were barred to married women.


So are women now on their way to becoming the dominant sex? Hanna Rosin’s book, “The End of Men and the Rise of Women”, published in 2012, argues that in America, at least, women are ahead not only**educationally**but increasingly also**professionally**and**socially**. Policymakers in many countries worry about the**prospect**of a growing**underclass**of**ill-educated men**. That should worry women, too: in the past they have typically married men in their own social group or above. If there are too few of those, many women will have**to marry down**or not at all.

那正是说,女人是还是不是逐步改为中坚性别?出版于贰零壹壹年的Ranna Rosin的《The End of Men and the Rise of Women》中提出,起码在United States,女人不仅仅教育上抢先,还在事情上和社会上当先。超多国家的核心制订者顾虑数量日益攀升的下层阶级的教育程度异常低的男子的前程前程。女人也理应担心那点。在过去,女人平凡与同阶层或超过自个儿阶层的男性成婚。要是这种男子相当少,大繁多女性只可以找出下阶层男子或采纳不成婚。

According to the OECD, the return on investment in a degree is higher for women than for men in many countries, though not all. In America PayScale, a company that**crunches**incomes data, found that the return on investment in a college degree for women was lower than or at best the same as for men. Although women as a group are now better qualified, they earn about three-quarters as much as men. A big reason is the choice of subject: education, the humanities and social work pay less than engineering or computer science. But academic research shows that women attach less importance than men to the graduate pay premium, suggesting that a high financial return is not the main reason for their further education.

据OECD突显,虽不是整套,但是在众多国家,高教投入对女性的报恩超过男性。一家采访收入多少的小卖部America PayScale发掘,女人对于高校文化水平的投资报酬率相对于男人来讲,非常低或(在最佳意况下)相像。即便女人总体展现更是,但她们薪酬水平仅为男性的3/4。主因在于相对于工程或微管理机科学等,女人采用教育、人文和社会科学那类薪俸相当低科目。不过,学术切磋展现相对于男子,女性越来越少的关切薪水,展现了谋求高回报实际不是女子追求高教的关键原因。

At the highest levels of business and the professions, women remain notably scarce. In a reversal of the pattern at school, the anonymous and therefore gender-blind essays and exams at university protect female students from bias. But in the workplace, says Elisabeth Kelan of Britain’s Cranfield School of Management, “traditional patterns assert themselves in miraculous ways”. Men and women join the medical and legal professions in roughly equal numbers, but 10-15 years later many women have chosen unambitious career paths or dropped out to spend time with their children. Meanwhile men**are rising through the ranks**as qualifications gained long ago fade in importance and personality, ambition and experience come to matter more.

在最高层级的经济贸易和业内领域,女子如故比较少。女人在学堂所呈现优势被翻盘。在学堂,散文及考试评价是无名氏的,性别因素被制止,而尊崇女子不受性别歧视的震慑。可是,来自于United KingdomCraneField经院的Elisabeth Kelan称,在干活场馆守旧情势再一次表明自个儿。同等数量的男子和女人投入理大学和法则大学,然则,10-15年以往,大多女性选择了更进一层干燥的生意路径或开支越来越多日子陪孩子。与此同不经常候,随着在此之前习得的经验的基本点日益消散而性情、雄心和资历成为更为首要的熏陶因素,男人在事情层级上稳步攀升。

For a long time it was said that since women had historically been**underrepresented**in university and work, it would take time to fill the pipeline from which senior appointments were made. But after 40 years of making up the majority of graduates in some countries,**that argument is wearing thin**. According to Claudia Goldin, an economics professor at Harvard, the “last chapter” in the story of women’s rise—equal pay and access to the best jobs—will not come without big structural changes.


In a recent paper in the American Economic Review Ms Goldin found that the difference between the hourly earnings of highly qualified men and their female peers grows hugely in the first 10-15 years of working life, largely because of a big**premium**in some highly paid jobs on putting in long days and being constantly on call. On the whole men find it easier than women to work in this way. Where such jobs are common, for example in business and the law, the gender pay gap remains wide and even**short spells**out of the workforce are severely penalised, meaning that**motherhood**can**exact**a heavy price. Where pay is roughly proportional to hours worked, as in pharmacy, it is low.


There will always be jobs where flexibility is not an option, says Ms Goldin: those of CEOs, trial lawyers, surgeons, some bankers and senior politicians come to mind. In many others, pay does not need to depend on being**available all hours**—and well-educated men who want a life outside work would benefit from change, too. But the new gender gap is at the other end of the pay spectrum. And it is not women who are suffering, but unskilled men.


Some people think that it is better to educate boys and girls in separate schools. Others, however, believe that boys and girls benefit more from attending mixed schools. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

  Girls outperform boys in school exams

Some countries have single-sex education models, while in others both single sex and mixed schools co-exist and it is up to the parents or the children to decide which model is preferable.

  Vocabulary: education: 词汇:教育

Some educationalists think that it is more effective to educate boys and girls in single-sex schools because they believe this environment can reduce distractions and encourage pupils concentrate on their studies. This is probably true to some extent. It also allow more equality among pupils and gives more opportunity to all those at the school to choose subject more freely without gender prejudice. For example, a much higher proportion of girls study science to a high level when they attend girls' schools than their counterpart in mixed schools do. Similarly, boys in single-sex schools are more likely to take cookery classes and to study languages, which are often thought of as traditional subjects for girls.

  Around the world, girls do better than boys at school。 These are the findings of a recent study that looked at the test results of 1.5 million 15-year-olds in 74 regions across the globe。

On the other hand, some experts would argue that mixed schools prepare their pupils for their future lives. Girls and boys learn to live together from an early age and are consequently not emotionally underdeveloped in their relations with the opposite sex. They are also able to learn each other, and to experience different types of skill and talent than might be evident in a single gender environment.

  The level of gender equality in those regions made no difference to the results。 Other factors, such as the income level of the region also had little impact on the findings。 In only three regions – Colombia, Costa Rica and the Indian state Himachal Pradesh – was the trend reversed with boys doing better。

Personally, I think that there are advantages to both systems. I went to a mixed school, but feel that myself missed the opportunity to specialise in cookery because it was seen as the natural domain and career path for girl. So because of that, I would have preferred to go to a boys' school. But hopefully times have changed, and both genders of student can have equal chances to study what they want to in whichever type of school they attend.

  So what are the causes of girls’ stronger performance? In the UK, girls outperform boys in exams that are taken at the age of 15 or 16, called GCSEs。 According to education expert Ian Toone, this is down to the way girls and boys are brought up。 “Boys are encouraged to be more active from an early age, whereas the restless movements of baby girls are pacified… Hence, girls develop the skill of sitting still for longer periods of time, which is useful for academic pursuits like studying for GCSEs。“

  He goes on to say that boys often cluster together in larger groups than girls。 Because of this they are more likely to be influenced by peer pressure and develop a gang mentality。 He says that GCSEs require a lot of solo work and are not viewed as ‘cool’ in a laddish culture。

  This is backed up by research in the UK that says girls are out-performing boys at the age of five。 So what is the answer? Should girls and boys be educated separately? Or do exams and school curricula need to be changed to better reflect boys’ skills? These are the questions facing educators in many countries。

  Glossary 词汇表

  gender equality男女同样


  income level收入水平

  to reverse a trend咸鱼翻身生龙活虎种趋势

  to pacify使安静、平定

  academic pursuit学术追求

  to cluster(人)聚集

  to influence影响

  peer pressure同龄人压力

  gang mentality黑帮心态




  school curricula高校课程

  to reflect反映


实习编辑:王雨欣 小编:赵润琰